A tradition has already been established in Slovakia with regard to collective bargaining at sectoral, sectoral and enterprise level. Today`s collective bargaining is based on the experience gained so far by the social partners involved in the social dialogue process. Over the past five years, many effective working contacts have been established between Slovak representatives of employers and trade unions and experts and their partners abroad, in particular in the EU Member States and in the International Labour Organisation. These working contacts have greatly contributed to the evolution of collective bargaining at various levels. British law reflects the historical contradictory nature of British industrial relations. In addition, workers are concerned that if their union is prosecuted for violating a collective agreement, the union could go bankrupt, allowing workers to remain in collective bargaining without representation. This unfortunate situation could change slowly, partly under the influence of the EU. Japanese and Chinese companies that have British factories (especially in the automotive industry) are trying to pass on the company`s ethics to their workers. [Clarification needed] This approach has been adopted by local UK companies such as Tesco. In the Common Law, Ford v A.U.E.F. , the courts once ruled that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act of 1971, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s cabinet), provided that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause explained otherwise. After the death of the Heath government, the law was rescinded to reflect the tradition of the UK`s labour relations policy of legally refraining from workplace disputes.
An employer and a trade union are required to negotiate all matters relating to wages, benefits or other terms and conditions of employment. Accordingly, the two parties must discuss each of these conditions and reach an agreement. If the parties are unable to reach an amicable agreement, negotiations may reach an impasse. Given the current structures of the social partners, there are generally fewer trade unions negotiating at sectoral or sectoral level than there are employers` organisations. For example, the influential metalworkers` union (Odborový zväz KOVO) negotiates separately with the employers` organizations of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgy, as well as foundries and forges. Similarly, the Slovak Trade Union of the Textile, Clothing and Leather Industry negotiates separately with the employers` organizations of the textile and clothing industry and the leather and footwear industry. In Finland, collective agreements are universal. This means that a collective agreement in a sector of activity becomes a universal legal minimum for everyone`s employment contract, whether unionized or not. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. The scope of sectoral or sectoral collective agreements generally focuses on the following main themes.
A collective agreement at the level of the undertaking or organisation may not certify the rights of workers already agreed at industry or sector level, nor grant more rights than provided for in the sectoral or sectoral collective agreement if it sets the maximum values. This means that a comprehensive contract of enterprise or organization can only agree on terms and conditions of employment and wages that are more favourable to workers than those provided for in the higher collective agreement. Collective agreements whose duration is not fixed are valid for a period of one year.